July 22 is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 162 days remaining until the end of the year. This date is slightly more likely to fall on a Wednesday, Friday or Sunday (58 in 400 years each) than on Monday or Tuesday (57), and slightly less likely to occur on a Thursday or Saturday (56).

Events
838 – Battle of Anzen: The Byzantine emperor Theophilos suffers a heavy defeat by the Abbasids.
1099 – First Crusade: Godfrey of Bouillon is elected the first Defender of the Holy Sepulchre of The Kingdom of Jerusalem.
1209 – Massacre at Béziers: The first major military action of the Albigensian Crusade.
1298 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Battle of Falkirk: King Edward I of England and his longbowmen defeat William Wallace and his Scottish schiltrons outside the town of Falkirk.
1456 – Ottoman wars in Europe: Siege of Belgrade: John Hunyadi, Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, defeats Mehmet II of the Ottoman Empire
1484 – Battle of Lochmaben Fair: A 500-man raiding party led by Alexander Stewart, Duke of Albany and James Douglas, 9th Earl of Douglas are defeated by Scots forces loyal to Albany’s brother James III of Scotland; Douglas is captured.
1499 – Battle of Dornach: The Swiss decisively defeat the army of Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor.
1587 – Roanoke Colony: A second group of English settlers arrives on Roanoke Island off North Carolina to re-establish the deserted colony.
1686 – Albany, New York is formally chartered as a municipality by Governor Thomas Dongan.
1706 – The Acts of Union 1707 are agreed upon by commissioners from the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, which, when passed by each countries’ Parliaments, led to the creation of the Kingdom of Great Britain.
1793 – Alexander Mackenzie reaches the Pacific Ocean becoming the first recorded human to complete a transcontinental crossing of North America.
1796 – Surveyors of the Connecticut Land Company name an area in Ohio “Cleveland” after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, the superintendent of the surveying party.
1797 – Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife: Battle between Spanish and British naval forces during the French Revolutionary Wars. During the Battle, Rear-Admiral Nelson is wounded in the arm and the arm had to be partially amputated.
1802 – Emperor Gia Long conquers Hanoi and unified Viet Nam, which had experienced centuries of feudal warfare.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: War of the Third Coalition: Battle of Cape Finisterre: An inconclusive naval action is fought between a combined French and Spanish fleet under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve of Spain and a British fleet under Admiral Robert Calder.
1812 – Napoleonic Wars: Peninsular War: Battle of Salamanca: British forces led by Arthur Wellesley (later the Duke of Wellington) defeat French troops near Salamanca, Spain.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Atlanta: Outside Atlanta, Confederate General John Bell Hood leads an unsuccessful attack on Union troops under General William T. Sherman on Bald Hill.
1893 – Katharine Lee Bates writes America the Beautiful after admiring the view from the top of Pikes Peak near Colorado Springs, Colorado.
1894 – The first ever motor race is held in France between the cities of Paris and Rouen. The fastest finisher was the Comte Jules-Albert de Dion, but the ‘official’ victory was awarded to Albert Lemaître driving his 3 hp petrol engined Peugeot.
1916 – Preparedness Day Bombing: In San Francisco, a bomb explodes on Market Street during a parade, killing ten and injuring 40.
1933 – Aviator Wiley Post returns to Floyd Bennett Field in New York City, completing the first solo flight around the world in seven days, 18 hours and 49 minutes.
1937 – New Deal: The United States Senate votes down President Franklin D. Roosevelt’s proposal to add more justices to the Supreme Court of the United States.
1942 – The United States government begins compulsory civilian gasoline rationing due to the wartime demands.
1942 – Holocaust: The systematic deportation of Jews from the Warsaw Ghetto begins.
1943 – World War II: Allied forces capture the Italian city of Palermo.
1943 – World War II: Axis occupation forces violently disperse a massive protest in Athens, killing 22.
1944 – The Polish Committee of National Liberation publishes its manifesto, starting the period of Communist rule in Poland
1946 – King David Hotel bombing: A Zionist underground organisation, the Irgun, bombs the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, site of the civil administration and military headquarters for Mandatory Palestine, resulting in 91 deaths.
1962 – Mariner program: Mariner 1 spacecraft flies erratically several minutes after launch and has to be destroyed.
1963 – Crown Colony of Sarawak gains self-governance.
1976 – Japan completes its last reparation to the Philippines for war crimes committed during imperial Japan’s conquest of the country in the Second World War.
1977 – Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping is restored to power.
1983 – Martial law in Poland is officially revoked.
1992 – Near Medellín, Colombian drug lord Pablo Escobar escapes from his luxury prison fearing extradition to the United States.
1993 – Great Flood of 1993: Levees near Kaskaskia, Illinois rupture, forcing the entire town to evacuate by barges operated by the Army Corps of Engineers.
1997 – The second Blue Water Bridge opens between Port Huron, Michigan and Sarnia, Ontario.
2003 – Members of 101st Airborne of the United States, aided by Special Forces, attack a compound in Iraq, killing Saddam Hussein’s sons Uday and Qusay, along with Mustapha Hussein, Qusay’s 14-year-old son, and a bodyguard.
2005 – Jean Charles de Menezes is killed by police as the hunt begins for the London Bombers responsible for the 7 July 2005 London bombings and the 21 July 2005 London bombings.
2011 – Norway is the victim of twin terror attacks, the first being a bomb blast which targeted government buildings in central Oslo, the second being a massacre at a youth camp on the island of Utøya.
2013 – A series of earthquakes in Dingxi, China, kills at least 89 people and injures more than 500 others.

Births
1210 – Joan of England, Queen of Scotland (d. 1238)
1437 – John Scrope, 5th Baron Scrope of Bolton, English Baron (d. 1498)
1476 – Zhu Youyuan, Ming Dynasty politician (d. 1519)
1478 – Philip I of Castile (d. 1506)
1531 – Leonhard Thurneysser, scholar and elector of Brandenburg (d. 1595)
1535 – Katarina Stenbock, queen of Gustav I of Sweden (d. 1621)
1552 – Anthony Browne, Sheriff of Surrey and Kent (d. 1592)
1552 – Mary Wriothesley, Countess of Southampton, Lady of English peer and others (d. 1607)
1559 – Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian priest and saint (d. 1619)
1600 – Michel de Marolles, French translator and churchman (d. 1681)
1615 – Marguerite of Lorraine, princess of Lorraine, duchess of Orléans (d. 1672)
1621 – Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, English politician, Lord Chancellor of the United Kingdom (d. 1683)
1647 – Margaret Mary Alacoque, French nun, mystic and saint (d. 1690)
1651 – Ferdinand Tobias Richter, Austrian organist and composer (d. 1711)
1711 – Georg Wilhelm Richmann, German-Russian physicist and academic (d. 1753)
1713 – Jacques-Germain Soufflot, French architect, designed the Panthéon (d. 1780)
1733 – Mikhail Shcherbatov, Russian philosopher and historian (d. 1790)
1755 – Gaspard de Prony, French mathematician and engineer (d. 1839)
1784 – Friedrich Bessel, German mathematician and astronomer (d. 1846)
1839 – Jakob Hurt, Estonian theologist and linguist (d. 1907)
1844 – William Archibald Spooner, English priest and scholar (d. 1930)
1848 – Adolphus Frederick V, Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (d. 1914)
1849 – Emma Lazarus, American poet and educator (d. 1887)
1856 – Octave Hamelin, French philosopher (d. 1907)
1862 – Cosmo Duff-Gordon, Scottish fencer (d. 1931)
1863 – Alec Hearne, English cricketer (d. 1952)
1878 – Janusz Korczak, Polish pediatrician and author (d. 1942)
1882 – Edward Hopper, American painter and etcher (d. 1967)
1884 – Odell Shepard, American poet and politician, 66th Lieutenant Governor of Connecticut (d. 1967)
1886 – Hella Wuolijoki, Estonian-Finnish author (d. 1954)
1887 – Gustav Ludwig Hertz, German physicist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1975)
1888 – Kirk Bryan, American geologist and academic (d. 1950)
1888 – Selman Waksman, Jewish-American biochemist and microbiologist, Nobel Prize laureate (d. 1973)
1889 – James Whale, English actor and director (d. 1957)
1890 – Rose Kennedy, American philanthropist (d. 1995)
1892 – Jack MacBryan, English cricketer and field hockey player (d. 1983)
1893 – Jesse Haines, American baseball player and coach (d. 1978)
1893 – Karl Menninger, American psychiatrist and author (d. 1990)
1895 – León de Greiff, Colombian poet, journalist, and diplomat (d. 1976)
1898 – Stephen Vincent Benét, American poet, short story writer, and novelist (d. 1943)
1899 – Sobhuza II of Swaziland (d. 1982)
1908 – Amy Vanderbilt, American author (d. 1974)
1909 – Licia Albanese, Italian-American soprano and actress (d. 2014)
1909 – Dorino Serafini, Italian race car driver (d. 2000)
1910 – Ruthie Tompson, American animator and artist
1913 – Gorni Kramer, Italian bassist, songwriter, and bandleader (d. 1995)
1915 – Shaista Suhrawardy Ikramullah, Indian-Pakistani politician and diplomat (d. 2000)
1916 – Gino Bianco, Brazilian race car driver (d. 1984)
1916 – Marcel Cerdan, French boxer (d. 1949)
1921 – William V. Roth Jr., American lawyer and politician (d. 2003)
1922 – Alan Stephenson Boyd, American businessman and politician, 1st United States Secretary of Transportation
1923 – Bob Dole, American soldier, lawyer, and politician
1923 – César Fernández Ardavín, Spanish director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2012)
1924 – Margaret Whiting, American singer (d. 2011)
1925 – Jack Matthews, American author, playwright, and academic (d. 2013)
1925 – Joseph Sargent, American actor, director, and producer (d. 2014)
1926 – Bryan Forbes, English actor, director, producer, and screenwriter (d. 2013)
1926 – Wolfgang Iser, German scholar, literary theorist (d. 2007)
1927 – Johan Ferner, Norwegian sailor (d. 2015)
1927 – Pierre Granier-Deferre, French director and screenwriter (d. 2007)
1928 – Orson Bean, American actor
1928 – Jimmy Hill, English footballer, manager, and sportscaster (d. 2015)
1929 – John Barber, English race car driver
1929 – Leonid Stolovich, Russian-Estonian philosopher and academic (d. 2013)
1929 – Neil Welliver, American painter (d. 2005)
1931 – Leo Labine, Canadian ice hockey player (d. 2005)
1932 – Oscar de la Renta, Dominican-American fashion designer (d. 2014)
1932 – Tom Robbins, American novelist
1934 – Junior Cook, American saxophonist (d. 1992)
1934 – Louise Fletcher, American actress
1935 – Tom Cartwright, English-Welsh cricketer and coach (d. 2007)
1936 – Don Patterson, American organist (d. 1988)
1936 – Harold Rhodes, English cricketer
1936 – Geraldine Claudette Darden, American mathematician
1937 – Chuck Jackson, American R&B singer and songwriter
1937 – Yasuhiro Kojima, Japanese-American wrestler and manager (d. 1999)
1937 – Vasant Ranjane, Indian cricketer (d. 2011)
1938 – Terence Stamp, English actor
1940 – Judith Walzer Leavitt, American historian and academic
1940 – Alex Trebek, Canadian-American game show host and producer
1941 – Estelle Bennett, American singer (d. 2009)
1941 – Vaughn Bodē, American illustrator (d. 1975)
1941 – George Clinton, American singer-songwriter and producer
1941 – David M. Kennedy, American historian and author
1942 – Michael Abney-Hastings, 14th Earl of Loudoun, English-Australian politician (d. 2012)
1942 – Peter Habeler, Austrian mountaineer and skier
1942 – Les Johns, Australian rugby player and coach
1943 – Masaru Emoto, Japanese author and activist (d. 2014)
1943 – Kay Bailey Hutchison, American lawyer and politician
1943 – Bobby Sherman, American singer-songwriter and actor
1944 – Rick Davies, English singer-songwriter and keyboard player
1944 – Sparky Lyle, American baseball player and manager
1944 – Anand Satyanand, New Zealand lawyer, judge, and politician, 19th Governor-General of New Zealand
1945 – Philip Cohen, English biochemist and academic
1946 – Danny Glover, American actor, director, and producer
1946 – Paul Schrader, American director and screenwriter
1946 – Rolando Joven Tria Tirona, Filipino archbishop
1946 – Johnson Toribiong, Palauan lawyer and politician, 7th President of Palau
1947 – Albert Brooks, American actor, comedian, director, and screenwriter
1947 – Gilles Duceppe, Canadian politician
1947 – Don Henley, American singer-songwriter and drummer
1949 – Alan Menken, American pianist and composer
1949 – Lasse Virén, Finnish runner and police officer
1950 – S. E. Hinton, American Author
1951 – Richard Bennett, American guitarist and producer
1951 – J. V. Cain, American football player (d. 1979)
1951 – Patriarch Daniel of Romania
1953 – Brian Howe, English singer-songwriter
1954 – Al Di Meola, American guitarist, songwriter, and producer
1954 – Steve LaTourette, American lawyer and politician (d. 2016)
1954 – Lonette McKee, American actress and singer
1954 – Ingrid Daubechies, Belgian physicist and mathematician
1955 – Richard J. Corman, American businessman, founded the R.J. Corman Railroad Group (d. 2013)
1955 – Willem Dafoe, American actor
1956 – Mick Pointer, English neo-progressive rock drummer (Marillion; Arena)
1956 – Scott Sanderson, American baseball player and sportscaster
1957 – Dave Stieb, American baseball player
1958 – Tatsunori Hara, Japanese baseball player and coach
1958 – David Von Erich, American wrestler (d. 1984)
1960 – Jon Oliva, American singer-songwriter and keyboard player
1961 – Calvin Fish, English race car driver and sportscaster
1961 – Keith Sweat, American singer-songwriter and producer
1962 – Alvin Robertson, American basketball player
1962 – Martine St. Clair, Canadian singer and actress
1963 – Emilio Butragueño, Spanish footballer
1963 – Emily Saliers, American singer-songwriter and musician
1964 – Will Calhoun, American rock drummer (Living Colour)
1964 – Bonnie Langford, English actress and dancer
1964 – John Leguizamo, Colombian-American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1964 – David Spade, American actor, producer, and screenwriter
1965 – Derrick Dalley, Canadian educator and politician
1965 – Shawn Michaels, American wrestler, trainer, and actor
1965 – Richard B. Poore, New Zealand humanitarian
1965 – Doug Riesenberg, American football player and coach
1966 – Tim Brown, American football player and manager
1967 – Lauren Booth, English journalist and activist
1968 – Rhys Ifans, Welsh actor
1969 – Despina Vandi, German-Greek singer and actress
1970 – Jason Becker, American guitarist and songwriter
1970 – Steve Carter, Australian rugby player
1970 – Devendra Fadnavis, Indian lawyer and politician, 18th Chief Minister of Maharashtra
1970 – Sergei Zubov, Russian ice hockey player and coach
1972 – Colin Ferguson, Canadian actor, director, and producer
1972 – Seth Fisher, American illustrator (d. 2006)
1972 – Keyshawn Johnson, American football player and sportscaster
1973 – Brian Chippendale, American singer and drummer
1973 – Daniel Jones, English-Australian guitarist, songwriter, and producer
1973 – Mike Sweeney, American baseball player and sportscaster
1973 – Ece Temelkuran, Turkish journalist and author
1973 – Rufus Wainwright, American-Canadian singer-songwriter
1974 – Franka Potente, German actress
1977 – Ezio Galon, Italian rugby player
1977 – Ingo Hertzsch, German footballer
1977 – Gustavo Nery, Brazilian footballer
1978 – Martyn Lee, English radio host and producer
1978 – Runako Morton, Nevisian cricketer (d. 2012)
1978 – Dennis Rommedahl, Danish footballer
1979 – Anna Bieleń-Żarska, Polish tennis player
1979 – Lucas Luhr, German race car driver
1979 – Yadel Martí, Cuban baseball player
1980 – Tablo, South Korean-Canadian rapper
1980 – Dirk Kuyt, Dutch footballer
1980 – Kate Ryan, Belgian singer-songwriter
1983 – Aldo de Nigris, Mexican footballer
1983 – Dries Devenyns, Belgian cyclist
1983 – Steven Jackson, American football player
1983 – Andreas Ulvo, Norwegian pianist
1984 – Stewart Downing, English footballer
1985 – Jessica Abbott, Australian swimmer
1985 – Takudzwa Ngwenya, Zimbabwean-American rugby player
1985 – Akira Tozawa, Japanese wrestler
1986 – Steve Johnson, American football player
1987 – Charlotte Kalla, Swedish skier
1988 – Paul Coutts, Scottish footballer
1988 – Thomas Kraft, German footballer
1988 – Sercan Temizyürek, Turkish footballer
1989 – Keegan Allen, American actor, photographer and musician
1991 – Matty James, English footballer
1992 – Anja Aguilar, Filipino actress and singer
1992 – Selena Gomez, American singer and actress
2002 – Prince Felix of Denmark
2013 – Prince George of Cambridge

Deaths
698 – Wu Chengsi, nephew of Chinese sovereign Wu Zetian
1258 – Meinhard I, Count of Gorizia-Tyrol (b. c. 1200)
1274 – Henry I of Navarre, Count of Champagne and Brie and King of Navarre
1298 – Sir John de Graham, Scottish soldier at the Battle of Falkirk
1362 – Louis, Count of Gravina (b. 1324)
1376 – Simon Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1310)
1387 – Frans Ackerman, Flemish politician (b. 1330)
1461 – Charles VII of France (b. 1403)
1525 – Richard Wingfield, English courtier and diplomat, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster (b. 1426)
1540 – John Zápolya, Hungarian king (b. 1487)
1550 – Jorge de Lencastre, Duke of Coimbra (b. 1481)
1581 – Richard Cox, English bishop (b. 1500)
1619 – Lawrence of Brindisi, Italian priest and saint (b. 1559)
1676 – Pope Clement X (b. 1590)
1726 – Hugh Drysdale, English-American politician, Colonial Governor of Virginia
1734 – Peter King, 1st Baron King, English lawyer and politician, Lord Chancellor of England (b. 1669)
1789 – Joseph Foullon de Doué, French politician, Controller-General of Finances (b. 1715)
1802 – Marie François Xavier Bichat, French anatomist and physiologist (b. 1771)
1824 – Thomas Macnamara Russell, English admiral
1826 – Giuseppe Piazzi, Italian mathematician and astronomer (b. 1746)
1832 – Napoleon II, French emperor (b. 1811)
1833 – Joseph Forlenze, Italian ophthalmologist and surgeon (b. 1757)
1864 – James B. McPherson, American general (b. 1828)
1869 – John A. Roebling, German-American engineer, designed the Brooklyn Bridge (b. 1806)
1902 – Mieczysław Halka-Ledóchowski, Polish cardinal (b. 1822)
1903 – Cassius Marcellus Clay, American publisher, lawyer, and politician, United States Ambassador to Russia (b. 1810)
1904 – Wilson Barrett, English actor and playwright (b. 1846)
1906 – William Snodgrass, Canadian minister and academic (b. 1827)
1908 – Randal Cremer, English politician, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1828)
1915 – Sandford Fleming, Scottish-Canadian engineer and inventor, developed Standard time (b. 1827)
1916 – James Whitcomb Riley, American poet and author (b. 1849)
1918 – Indra Lal Roy, Indian lieutenant and pilot (b. 1898)
1920 – William Kissam Vanderbilt, American businessman and horse breeder (b. 1849)
1922 – Jokichi Takamine, Japanese-American chemist and academic (b. 1854)
1932 – J. Meade Falkner, English author and poet (b. 1858)
1932 – Reginald Fessenden, Canadian inventor and academic (b. 1866)
1932 – Errico Malatesta, Italian activist and author (b. 1853)
1932 – Flo Ziegfeld, American actor and producer (b. 1867)
1934 – John Dillinger, American gangster (b. 1903)
1937 – Ted McDonald, Australian cricketer and footballer (b. 1891)
1940 – Albert Young, American boxer and promoter (b. 1877)
1948 – Rūdolfs Jurciņš, Latvian basketball player (b. 1909)
1950 – William Lyon Mackenzie King, Canadian economist and politician, 10th Prime Minister of Canada (b. 1874)
1958 – Mikhail Zoshchenko, Ukrainian-Russian soldier and author (b. 1895)
1967 – Carl Sandburg, American poet and historian (b. 1878)
1968 – Giovannino Guareschi, Italian journalist and cartoonist (b. 1908)
1970 – George Johnston, Australian journalist and author (b. 1912)
1974 – Wayne Morse, American lawyer and politician (b. 1900)
1979 – J. V. Cain, American football player (b. 1951)
1979 – Sándor Kocsis, Hungarian footballer and manager (b. 1929)
1986 – Floyd Gottfredson, American author and illustrator (b. 1905)
1986 – Ede Staal, Dutch singer-songwriter (b. 1941)
1987 – Fahrettin Kerim Gökay, Turkish physician and politician, Turkish Minister of Health (b. 1900)
1990 – Manuel Puig, Argentinian author, playwright, and screenwriter (b. 1932)
1992 – David Wojnarowicz, American painter, photographer, and activist (b. 1954)
1995 – Harold Larwood, English-Australian cricketer (b. 1904)
1996 – Rob Collins, English keyboard player (b. 1956)
1998 – Fritz Buchloh, German footballer and coach (b. 1909)
2000 – Eric Christmas, English-born Canadian actor (b. 1916)
2000 – Carmen Martín Gaite, Spanish author, poet, and playwright (b. 1925)
2000 – Raymond Lemieux, Canadian chemist and academic (b. 1920)
2000 – Claude Sautet, French director and screenwriter (b. 1924)
2001 – Indro Montanelli, Italian journalist and historian (b. 1909)
2004 – Sacha Distel, French singer and guitarist (b. 1933)
2004 – Illinois Jacquet, American saxophonist and composer (b. 1922)
2005 – Eugene Record, American singer-songwriter and producer (b. 1940)
2006 – José Antonio Delgado, Venezuelan mountaineer (b. 1965)
2007 – Mike Coolbaugh, American baseball player and coach (b. 1972)
2007 – Jarrod Cunningham, New Zealand rugby player (b. 1968)
2007 – László Kovács, Hungarian-American director and cinematographer (b. 1933)
2007 – Rollie Stiles, American baseball player (b. 1906)
2008 – Estelle Getty, American actress (b. 1923)
2009 – Richard M. Givan, American lawyer and judge (b. 1921)
2009 – Peter Krieg, German director, producer, and screenwriter (b. 1947)
2010 – Kenny Guinn, American banker and politician, 27th Governor of Nevada (b. 1936)
2011 – Linda Christian, Mexican-American actress (b. 1923)
2011 – Cees de Wolf, Dutch footballer (b. 1945)
2012 – Ding Guangen, Chinese engineer and politician (b. 1929)
2012 – George Armitage Miller, American psychologist and academic (b. 1920)
2012 – Frank Pierson, American director and screenwriter (b. 1925)
2013 – Natalie de Blois, American architect, co-designed the Lever House (b. 1921)
2013 – Dennis Farina, American policeman and actor (b. 1944)
2013 – Lawrie Reilly, Scottish footballer (b. 1928)
2013 – Rosalie E. Wahl, American lawyer and judge (b. 1924)
2014 – Johann Breyer, German SS officer (b. 1925)
2014 – Louis Lentin, Irish director and producer (b. 1933)
2014 – Nitzan Shirazi, Israeli footballer and manager (b. 1971)